4. Mai Dan Brown lässt seine Charaktere in „Illuminati“ mit Antimaterie eine Bombe bauen, mit der der Vatikan zerstört werden soll. Quelle der. Illuminati ist der deutsche Titel eines im März erschienenen Thrillers von Dan Brown (englischer Originaltitel: Angels & Demons, ) mit einer weltweiten. Illuminati (lat. für: die Erleuchteten) steht für: Mitglieder von Gruppierungen: Illuminati, Mitglieder einer bis bestehenden Geheimgesellschaft, siehe.
Historically, the name usually refers to the Bavarian Illuminati , an Enlightenment -era secret society founded on 1 May The society's goals were to oppose superstition , obscurantism , religious influence over public life, and abuses of state power.
Many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members, including Ferdinand of Brunswick and the diplomat Xavier von Zwack , who was the Order's second-in-command.
In subsequent use, "Illuminati" refers to various organisations which claim or are purported to have links to the original Bavarian Illuminati or similar secret societies, though these links are unsubstantiated.
They are often alleged to conspire to control world affairs, by masterminding events and planting agents in government and corporations , in order to gain political power and influence and to establish a New World Order.
Central to some of the more widely known and elaborate conspiracy theories , the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking in the shadows and pulling the strings and levers of power in dozens of novels, films, television shows, comics, video games, and music videos.
Adam Weishaupt — was a professor of Canon Law and practical philosophy at the University of Ingolstadt.
He was the only non-clerical professor at an institution run by Jesuits , whose order had been dissolved in The Jesuits of Ingolstadt, however, still retained the purse strings and some power at the University, which they continued to regard as their own.
Constant attempts were made to frustrate and discredit non-clerical staff, especially when course material contained anything they regarded as liberal or Protestant.
Weishaupt became deeply anti-clerical, resolving to spread the ideals of the Enlightenment Aufklärung through some sort of secret society of like-minded individuals.
Finding Freemasonry to be expensive, and not open to his ideas, he founded his own society which was to have a gradal system based on Freemasonry, but his own agenda.
Weishaupt later expelled Sutor for indolence. Massenhausen was initially the most active in expanding the society. Significantly, while studying in Munich shortly after the formation of the order, he recruited Xavier von Zwack , a former pupil of Weishaupt at the beginning of a significant administrative career.
At the time, he was in charge of the Bavarian National Lottery. Massenhausen's enthusiasm soon became a liability in the eyes of Weishaupt, often attempting to recruit unsuitable candidates.
Later, his erratic love-life made him neglectful, and as Weishaupt passed control of the Munich group to Zwack, it became clear that Massenhausen had misappropriated subscriptions and intercepted correspondence between Weishaupt and Zwack.
In , Massenhausen graduated and took a post outside Bavaria, taking no further interest in the order. At this time, the order had a nominal membership of twelve.
With the departure of Massenhausen, Zwack immediately applied himself to recruiting more mature and important recruits. Most prized by Weishaupt was Hertel, a childhood friend and a canon of the Munich Frauenkirche.
During this early period, the order had three grades of Novice, Minerval, and Illuminated Minerval, of which only the Minerval grade involved a complicated ceremony.
In this the candidate was given secret signs and a password. A system of mutual espionage kept Weishaupt informed of the activities and character of all his members, his favourites becoming members of the ruling council, or Areopagus.
Some novices were permitted to recruit, becoming Insinuants. Christians of good character were actively sought, with Jews and pagans specifically excluded, along with women, monks, and members of other secret societies.
Favoured candidates were rich, docile, willing to learn, and aged 18— Having, with difficulty, dissuaded some of his members from joining the Freemasons, Weishaupt decided to join the older order to acquire material to expand his own ritual.
Zwack persuaded Weishaupt that their own order should enter into friendly relations with Freemasonry, and obtain the dispensation to set up their own lodge.
At this stage December , the addition of the first three degrees of Freemasonry was seen as a secondary project. With little difficulty, a warrant was obtained from the Grand Lodge of Prussia called the Royal York for Friendship , and the new lodge was called Theodore of the Good Council , with the intention of flattering Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.
It was founded in Munich on 21 March , and quickly packed with Illuminati. The first master, a man called Radl, was persuaded to return home to Baden, and by July Weishaupt's order ran the lodge.
The next step involved independence from their Grand Lodge. By establishing masonic relations with the Union lodge in Frankfurt, affiliated to the Premier Grand Lodge of England , lodge Theodore became independently recognised, and able to declare its independence.
As a new mother lodge, it could now spawn lodges of its own. The recruiting drive amongst the Frankfurt masons also obtained the allegiance of Adolph Freiherr Knigge.
Knigge was recruited late in at a convention of the Rite of Strict Observance by Costanzo Marchese di Costanzo, an infantry captain in the Bavarian army and a fellow Freemason.
Knigge, still in his twenties, had already reached the highest initiatory grades of his order, and had arrived with his own grand plans for its reform.
Disappointed that his scheme found no support, Knigge was immediately intrigued when Costanzo informed him that the order that he sought to create already existed.
Knigge and three of his friends expressed a strong interest in learning more of this order, and Costanzo showed them material relating to the Minerval grade.
The teaching material for the grade was "liberal" literature which was banned in Bavaria, but common knowledge in the Protestant German states.
Knigge's three companions became disillusioned and had no more to do with Costanzo, but Knigge's persistence was rewarded in November by a letter from Weishaupt.
Knigge's connections, both within and outside of Freemasonry, made him an ideal recruit. Knigge, for his own part, was flattered by the attention, and drawn towards the order's stated aims of education and the protection of mankind from despotism.
Weishaupt managed to acknowledge, and pledge to support, Knigge's interest in alchemy and the "higher sciences". Knigge replied to Weishaupt outlining his plans for the reform of Freemasonry as the Strict Observance began to question its own origins.
Weishaupt set Knigge the task of recruiting before he could be admitted to the higher grades of the order. Knigge accepted, on the condition that he be allowed to choose his own recruiting grounds.
Many other masons found Knigge's description of the new masonic order attractive, and were enrolled in the Minerval grade of the Illuminati.
Knigge appeared at this time to believe in the "Most Serene Superiors" which Weishaupt claimed to serve. His inability to articulate anything about the higher degrees of the order became increasingly embarrassing, but in delaying any help, Weishaupt gave him an extra task.
Provided with material by Weishaupt, Knigge now produced pamphlets outlining the activities of the outlawed Jesuits, purporting to show how they continued to thrive and recruit, especially in Bavaria.
Meanwhile, Knigge's inability to give his recruits any satisfactory response to questions regarding the higher grades was making his position untenable, and he wrote to Weishaupt to this effect.
In January , faced with the prospect of losing Knigge and his masonic recruits, Weishaupt finally confessed that his superiors and the supposed antiquity of the order were fictions, and the higher degrees had yet to be written.
If Knigge had expected to learn the promised deep secrets of Freemasonry in the higher degrees of the Illuminati, he was surprisingly calm about Weishaupt's revelation.
Weishaupt promised Knigge a free hand in the creation of the higher degrees, and also promised to send him his own notes. For his own part, Knigge welcomed the opportunity to use the order as a vehicle for his own ideas.
His new approach would, he claimed, make the Illuminati more attractive to prospective members in the Protestant kingdoms of Germany. In November the Areopagus advanced Knigge 50 florins to travel to Bavaria, which he did via Swabia and Franconia , meeting and enjoying the hospitality of other Illuminati on his journey.
The order had now developed profound internal divisions. The Eichstaedt command had formed an autonomous province in July , and a rift was growing between Weishaupt and the Areopagus, who found him stubborn, dictatorial, and inconsistent.
Knigge fitted readily into the role of peacemaker. In discussions with the Areopagus and Weishaupt, Knigge identified two areas which were problematic.
Weishaupt's emphasis on the recruitment of university students meant that senior positions in the order often had to be filled by young men with little practical experience.
Secondly, the anti-Jesuit ethos of the order at its inception had become a general anti-religious sentiment, which Knigge knew would be a problem in recruiting the senior Freemasons that the order now sought to attract.
Knigge felt keenly the stifling grip of conservative Catholicism in Bavaria, and understood the anti-religious feelings that this produced in the liberal Illuminati, but he also saw the negative impression these same feelings would engender in Protestant states, inhibiting the spread of the order in greater Germany.
Both the Areopagus and Weishaupt felt powerless to do anything less than give Knigge a free hand. He had the contacts within and outside of Freemasonry that they needed, and he had the skill as a ritualist to build their projected gradal structure, where they had ground to a halt at Illuminatus Minor , with only the Minerval grade below and the merest sketches of higher grades.
The only restrictions imposed were the need to discuss the inner secrets of the highest grades, and the necessity of submitting his new grades for approval.
Meanwhile, the scheme to propagate Illuminatism as a legitimate branch of Freemasonry had stalled. While Lodge Theodore was now in their control, a chapter of "Elect Masters" attached to it only had one member from the order, and still had a constitutional superiority to the craft lodge controlled by the Illuminati.
The chapter would be difficult to persuade to submit to the Areopagus, and formed a very real barrier to Lodge Theodore becoming the first mother-lodge of a new Illuminated Freemasonry.
A treaty of alliance was signed between the order and the chapter, and by the end of January four daughter lodges had been created, but independence was not in the chapter's agenda.
Costanza wrote to the Royal York pointing out the discrepancy between the fees dispatched to their new Grand Lodge and the service they had received in return.
The Royal York, unwilling to lose the revenue, offered to confer the "higher" secrets of Freemasonry on a representative that their Munich brethren would dispatch to Berlin.
Costanza accordingly set off for Prussia on 4 April , with instructions to negotiate a reduction in Theodore's fees while he was there. On the way, he managed to have an argument with a Frenchman on the subject of a lady with whom they were sharing a carriage.
The Frenchman sent a message ahead to the king, some time before they reached Berlin, denouncing Costanza as a spy.
He was only freed from prison with the help of the Grand Master of Royal York, and was expelled from Prussia having accomplished nothing.
Knigge's initial plan to obtain a constitution from London would, they realised, have been seen through by the chapter. Until such time as they could take over other masonic lodges that their chapter could not control, they were for the moment content to rewrite the three degrees for the lodges which they administered.
On 20 January Knigge tabulated his new system of grades for the order. These were arranged in three classes:. Knigge's recruitment from German Freemasonry was far from random.
He targeted the masters and wardens, the men who ran the lodges, and were often able to place the entire lodge at the disposal of the Illuminati.
In Aachen , Baron de Witte, master of Constancy lodge, caused every member to join the order. In this way, the order expanded rapidly in central and southern Germany, and obtained a foothold in Austria.
Moving into the Spring of , the handful of students that had started the order had swelled to about members, only 20 of the new recruits being students.
In Munich, the first half of saw huge changes in the government of Lodge Theodore. In February, Weishaupt had offered to split the lodge, with the Illuminati going their own way and the chapter taking any remaining traditionalists into their own continuation of Theodore.
At this point, the chapter unexpectedly capitulated, and the Illuminati had complete control of lodge and chapter. The internet is awash with theories about the Illuminati, a mysterious group that conspiracy theorists believe is seeking a 'New World Order' that would impose a totalitarian world government.
Among the alleged members of the secret society are not just politicians and religious leaders, but actors and pop stars. The original Illuminati group was founded in Bavaria in the 18th century by Adam Weishaupt, an anti-clerical professor who wanted to limit the interference of the Church in public life.
He based his secret society on the Freemasons, with a hierarchy and mysterious rituals, and named it the Order of Illuminati to reflect the enlightened ideals of its educated members.
Chris Hodapp, the co-author of Conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies for Dummies, says a defining feature of early Illuminati members is that they did not trust anyone over 30, because they were too set in their ways.
The order did boast some influential members, with the most famous of these alleged to have been the German thinker Johann Goethe.
The Illuminati was stamped out by a government crackdown on secret societies in the late s, but rumours that it continued to survive as an underground organisation have persisted into the modern day.
In a recent interview with the BBC , David Bramwell, "a man who has dedicated himself to documenting the origins of the myth", claims the modern-day Illuminati legend was influenced not by Weishaupt but rather by LSD, the s counter-culture, and specifically a text called Principia Discordia.
The book extolled an alternative belief system — Discordianism — which preached a form of anarchism and gave birth to the Discordian movement which ultimately wished to cause civil disobedience through practical jokes and hoaxes.
One of the main proponents of this new ideology was a writer called Robert Anton Wilson who wanted to bring chaos back into society by "disseminating misinformation through all portals — through counter culture, through the mainstream media," claims Bramwell.
He did this by sending fake letters to the men's magazine Playboy, where he worked, attributing cover-ups and conspiracy theories, such as the JFK assassination, to a secret elite organisation called the Illuminati.
Wilson went on to turn these theories into a book, The Illuminatus Trilogy, which became a surprise cult success and were even made into a stage play in Liverpool, launching the careers of British actors Bill Nighy and Jim Broadbent.
Despite its relative popularity success, the idea of a powerful modern Illuminati conspiring to rule the world remained a niche belief upheld by a handful of cranks until the s.
The spread of the internet changed all that, giving conspiracy theorists a global platform to expound their beliefs and present their evidence to a massive audience.
Theories about how the New World Order operates run from the faintly credible — in light of the Davos summit, a cabal of politicians and business leaders getting together to decide global policies doesn't seem impossible — to the outright bizarre.
When asked why, he said many members of the Illuminati have stakes in oil and were therefore heavily invested in how well the industry did. At the other end of the believability spectrum is former TV presenter David Icke's claim that the world's leaders are actually super-intelligent lizards in human guise who control our reality from the Moon.
Those who remember Icke from his days on Grandstand may be surprised to know his theories about our reptilian overlords — who have included the Rothschilds, Bob Hope and Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother - have amassed a faithful following on the internet.
Conspiracy theorists obsessively analyse public events for "evidence" of Illuminati influence. The symbols most associated with the Illuminati include triangles, pentagrams, goats, the all-seeing eye — such as the one that appears on US bank notes - and the number This has led to claims some of the American Founding Fathers were members, with Thomas Jefferson baselessly accused in the aftermath of the War of Independence.
Another commonly cited Illuminati symbol, which appears on US currency, is the so-called Eye of Providence, which is said to represent the omniscience of God watching over humanity.
It could be doing it right now. The Illuminati has existed since the dawn of time. Its insignia can be seen on the pyramids, its influence was evident around the life of Christ, and their top bananas — such as for example the Queen — are in fact ancient lizards dating from an era before man existed a belief that often comes with some rather unpleasant antisemitic underpinnings.
His society — The Order of the Illuminati — grew from five members to thousands in just a few years, but then, after Karl Theodor became ruler of Bavaria, secret societies were made punishable by death, and there the order ended.
It wants nothing less than to establish a new world order — over which an authoritarian gang of elites would rule, and under which nation states would be banished.
Alternately, it is part of a fight against fake news, which began in the s. A journalist for Playboy magazine called Robert Anton Wilson , along with a writer called Kerry Thornley, who had written a jokey text on the Illuminati, decided that the world was becoming too authoritarian, and one way to shake that up would be to get people to start questioning what they read.Das benutzt er, um eines der Themen des Buches auf den Punkt zu bringen: Die Themen, die der Film anspricht, beleuchten wir auf den folgenden Seiten aus physikalischer Sicht. Trotzdem muss man mehr Energie in den Akku hereinstecken als man später wieder herausbekommt. Ziel war die Verbesserung und Vervollkommnung der Welt und seiner Mitglieder daher auch der alte Name Perfectibilisten. Sie sollte die Energiequelle der Zukunft werden, also friedlich genutzt werden. Langdon sucht nach einer Information mit Bezug auf die Zahl der Illuminaten: Zudem ist diese Idee der Trilogie Illuminatus! Wenige Augenblicke später sehen die Menschen den Camerlengo wie eine göttliche Erscheinung auf dem Petersdom. Physik im Spielfilm Illuminati. Eine Mitgliederzahl von etwa gilt mittlerweile als gesichert. Fakten sind eine Geschichte, Fantasie ist eine andere. Das ist der Passetto.